A casino, or gambling establishment, is a facility where patrons can place bets with cash or chips and win prizes. Some casinos specialize in specific games, such as poker, while others offer a wide variety of games like blackjack, craps and video slots. Some casinos also have restaurants and bars. Some are located in large, lavish buildings, while others are smaller and more intimate.
A modern casino offers a wide range of security measures to protect patrons and property. Staff members monitor the casino floor to detect suspicious behavior and spot cheaters. They also use advanced technology to supervise the games themselves, including systems that track betting chips with built-in microcircuitry; roulette wheels are electronically monitored minute by minute, allowing a casino to quickly discover any statistical deviation from expected results; and slot machines are programmed to payout randomly according to an algorithm that is constantly being tested for consistency.
Casinos make money by charging players a commission for the privilege of playing their games. This fee is sometimes called the vig or rake, and it earns the casino a predictable profit over time. The house edge of individual casino games is mathematically determined, and it can be quite small (lower than two percent). This profit, plus the large sums of money that are gambled in a single day, gives the casinos enough revenue to build huge complexes featuring hotels, fountains, towers and replicas of famous landmarks.
In addition to the usual table and slot machine games, a casino can feature a number of games unique to its location or culture. For example, in Asia, casinos often offer traditional Far Eastern games such as sic bo, fan-tan, and pai gow. They may also have a full range of American and European games.
The interior design of a casino is meant to create a luxurious, upscale atmosphere. Lush carpets, dark wood paneling and carefully designed lighting are used to give the casino an opulent feel. The walls are often covered with paintings and photographs of celebrities, and the ceilings are adorned with elaborate chandeliers. Casinos also encourage gamblers to spend more money by offering them free food and drinks. These inducements can be very effective in attracting gamblers and keeping them at the tables.
The opulence of the casino has long attracted organized crime figures, who are willing to risk their own money to supplement their earnings from illegal activities. In the 1950s, mobsters supplied much of the capital for Las Vegas casinos, and many of them became personally involved in the businesses, taking sole or partial ownership of the properties. This tainted the reputation of the casinos and prompted government regulation. Nevertheless, the industry has continued to thrive in places such as Macau, which now has more gambling revenue than Las Vegas and is nearly three times larger. It is estimated that there are more than 3,000 casinos worldwide. Most of them are legal, although many states have anti-gambling laws.